SUNDAY SCIENTIFIC SESSIONS NEWS TIPS

November 13, 2016 Categories: Heart News, Scientific Conferences & Meetings

Tip Headlines:

  • Smoking a pack or more a day increases diabetes risks among blacks
  • Elderly heart attack survivors rarely filled prescription smoking cessation medications
  • Most smartphone healthy diet apps fall short of recommended guidelines
  • Moderate alcohol intake may slow good cholesterol’s decline
  • Most Americans consume too much sodium, not enough potassium
  • Diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids may help lower blood pressure in young, healthy adults
  • Physically fit adults have lower statin-induced diabetes risk

NOTE: ALL TIMES ARE CENTRAL. ALL TIPS ARE EMBARGOED UNTIL THE TIME OF PRESENTATION OR 3 p.m. CT/ 4 p.m. ET EACH DAY, WHICHEVER COMES FIRST.

Embargo: 2 p.m. CT/3 p.m. ET

Poster: S2043 – Session: LF.APS.P42

Smoking a pack or more a day increases diabetes risks among blacks

Smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day increases the risk of diabetes among blacks, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2016.

Researchers studied nearly 3,000 black participants in the Jackson Heart study, who reported their smoking status. During the study, 466 people were diagnosed with diabetes. While diabetes incidence was similar among those smoking less than a pack day, past smokers and never smokers, the risk of diabetes was 62 percent higher for those smoking more than a pack a day.

Smoking cessation should be strongly encouraged in blacks with risk factors for diabetes,” researchers said.

Wendy White, Ph.D., Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Mississippi.

Location: Science and Technology Hall, Population Science Section

Embargo: 2 p.m. CT/3 p.m. ET

Poster: S2110 – Session: LF.APS.P48

Elderly heart attack survivors rarely filled prescription smoking cessation medications

Elderly smokers who were discharged from the hospital after having a heart attack rarely filled prescriptions for medications that might help them quit smoking, despite being counseled about the need to quit during their hospital stay, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2016.

Researchers studied nearly 2,400 heart attack survivors, who were older than 65 and current or recent smokers, at 377 U.S. hospitals.

They found:

  • While 96 percent received smoking cessation counseling before discharge, only 9.8 percent filled a prescription for the smoking cessation medications bupropion or varenicline within 90 days after discharge.
  • Only 13 percent filled a prescription for these medications within one year after being hospitalized for heart attack.
  • Whites and women were more likely to use smoking cessation drugs within 90 days after hospitalization for a heart attack.

Being older and having had a previous procedure to increase blood flow to the heart were factors that made it less likely that patients would use bupropion or varenicline within 90 days after being discharged from the hospital for a heart attack.

There remains a great deal of room for improvement in intensifying smoking cessation interventions during and after a patient’s hospital stay for a heart attack, researchers said.

Neha J. Pagidipati, M.D., M.P.H., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Location: Science and Technology Hall, Population Science Section

Embargo: 2 p.m. CT/3 p.m. ET

Poster: S2012 – Session: LF.APS.P40

Most smartphone healthy diet applications fall short of recommended guidelines

Most smartphone applications claiming to improve consumers’ diet, nutrition or eating habits are not compliant with evidence-based scientific guidelines, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2016.

Researchers studied whether 32 health and fitness applications featured on Google Play and the iTunes application store adhered to the U.S. Government’s 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. They found:

  • About 72 percent of applications, included some of the five overarching healthy eating pattern components: healthy eating patterns; appropriate calorie limit; nutrient-dense foods and beverages; variety of foods and beverages; and community outreach and social support.
  • 75 percent of the applications, however, received a low score for failing to address recommended daily amounts of food groups (such as vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy and protein).
  • 84 percent fell short of addressing recommended daily amounts of food subgroups (including dark-green vegetables or whole grains) which comprise a healthy eating pattern.

“It is important that application developers address this information gap so as to safely and effectively achieve the applications’ stated goals,” researchers said.

Tania Dhawan, B.A., George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.

Location: Science and Technology Hall, Population Science Section

Embargo: 2 p.m. CT/3 p.m. ET

Poster: S2064 – Session: LF.APS.P44

Moderate alcohol intake may slow good cholesterol’s decline

In a study of 80,000 healthy Chinese adults, moderate drinking was associated with slower declines in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or good cholesterol, over time, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2016.

Researchers followed alcohol consumption and HDL levels for more than six years in this community-based study. They grouped the adults by self-reported drinking status, from never, to heavy drinking (more than one daily serving of alcohol for women and more than two daily servings for men). They found:

  • HDL levels decreased over time in all participants, but moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a slower decline compared to non-drinkers or heavy drinkers.
  • Moderate drinkers (men drinking one to two alcohol servings daily and women a half to one serving daily) had the slowest decline – 0.17 mmol/per year.
  • Heavy drinking nearly eliminated this benefit with only .0008 mmol per year decline.

The researchers also analyzed whether the benefits of alcohol consumption depended on the type alcohol consumed. They found levels of HDL also decreased more slowly with self-reported moderate beer consumption. Among hard liquor drinkers, only self-reported light (men drinking less than 1 serving a day; women drinking zero to .4 servings daily) to moderate drinking resulted in slower rates of HDL decline.

There weren’t enough wine drinkers to test wine’s effects on HDL, researchers said. Further studies are needed to determine if this effect is observed in other populations, such as a U.S. population, and whether there are significant and clinically-relevant outcomes based on the type of alcohol consumed.

The American Heart Association recommends consuming alcohol in moderation if you already drink but cautions people to not start drinking and consult your doctor on your risks and benefits of consuming alcohol in moderation.

Shue Huang, Ph.D. candidate, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania.

Location: Science and Technology Hall, Population Science Section

Embargo: 2 p.m. CT/3 p.m. ET

Poster: S2068 – Session: LF.APS.P44

Most Americans consume too much sodium, not enough potassium

A majority of Americans consume too much sodium and not enough potassium, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2016.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers analyzed 24-hour urine excretions — the gold standard measure for sodium intake — from a sample of 827 U.S. adults, aged 20 to 69, participating in the 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This is the first nationally-representative estimate of U.S. sodium intake based on 24-hour urine excretions.

They found:

  • Average daily sodium intake was 3,662 milligrams (mg).
  • Intake was higher among men than women, but did not significantly differ by race or ethnicity, body mass index or physical activity level.
  • Nearly 90 percent of participants consumed more than 2,300 mg of sodium, the upper level recommended by Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020.
  • Average daily potassium intake was 2,202 mg and varied by sex and race-ethnicity.
  • Women tended to have lower potassium levels than men and blacks tended to have the least potassium, versus whites who had the most.

Adequate potassium intake is 4,700 mg or more, suggesting Americans are not consuming enough in their diets.

Because of the health risks associated with excess sodium and inadequate potassium, monitoring intake is key to shaping effective dietary policies and interventions, researchers said.

For optimal heart-health, the American Heart Association recommends people aim to eat no more than 1,500 milligrams of sodium per day.

Mary E. Cogswell, R.N., Dr.P.H.; CDC, Atlanta, Georgia.

Location: Science and Technology Hall, Population Science Section

Embargo: 2 p.m. CT/3 p.m. ET

Poster: S2066 – Session: LF.APS.P44

Diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids may help lower blood pressure in young, healthy adults

Healthy young people may be able to help prevent the onset of high blood pressure by eating diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2016.

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats, mostly found in fish and some types of plant oils. Researchers studied 2,036 young, healthy adults by measuring the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood and recording their blood pressure measurements. They divided people into four groups, from the quarter with the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood to the quarter with the lowest.

They found adults in the highest quarter had about 4 mm Hg lower systolic and 2 mm Hg lower diastolic blood pressure compared to those with the least omega-3 fatty acids in their blood.

In general, the higher the omega-3 fatty acids in the blood meant lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This suggests promoting diets rich in omega-3 foods could become a strategy to prevent high blood pressure.

Mark Filipovic, M.D. (student), University of Zurich, Cantonal Hospital of Baden, Baden, Switzerland.

Location: Science and Technology Hall, Population Science Section

Embargo: 3 p.m. CT/4 p.m. ET

Presentation: 606 – Session: LF.RFO.17 (News tip contains information not in abstract.)

Physically fit adults have lower statin-induced diabetes risk

Being fit may protect those who take cholesterol-lowering statins from developing statin-induced Type 2 diabetes, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2016.

Researchers studied 5,143 veterans who didn’t have diabetes but were at risk for the disease. Based on exercise testing, researchers divided the veterans into five fitness categories, from the least fit, low fit and moderately fit, to fit and highly fit, based on their exercise performance.

They found:

  • Among patients with high cholesterol, treatment with statins increased the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by 20 percent.
  • Diabetes risk was similar in the three least-fit categories.
  • Those in the fit category had a 22 percent lower risk of diabetes than the least fit.
  • Those in the highly fit category had a 42 percent reduction in diabetes risk compared to the least fit.

The good news is that the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes decreased progressively as patients’ cardiorespiratory fitness improved. In the fit and highly fit groups, the risk of developing diabetes was not seen at all.

The risk of developing diabetes while being treated with statins for high cholesterol can be decreased among high-risk adults by improving their fitness status, researchers said.

Puneet Narayan, M.D., Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington D.C.

(Actual scientific presentation time is 4:10 p.m. CT/5:10 p.m. ET, Sunday, Nov. 13, 2016.)

Location: Science and Technology Hall, Population Science Theater

Additional Resources:

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