Research Highlights:

  • People with recent heart attacks have significantly higher activity in a brain area (the amygdala) involved in stress perception and emotional response.
  • They also have more inflammation in key arteries and increased bone marrow activity, a hallmark of plaque build-up that can lead to a heart attack.
  • As patients recovered, amygdala activity and carotid artery inflammation returned to near-normal levels similar to people who hadn’t had a heart attack.

Embargoed until 9 a.m. CT/10 a.m. ET, Tuesday, May 5, 2020

DALLAS, May 5, 2020 — People with recent heart attacks have significantly higher activity in the amygdala, the brain area involved in stress perception and emotional response, along with greater inflammation in arteries resulting from increased bone marrow activity, a hallmark of plaque build-up — and these are all capable of returning to near-normal, according to preliminary research presented at the American Heart Association’s Vascular Discovery: From Genes to Medicine Scientific Sessions 2020. The meeting is a virtual event in 2020, to be held May 5-7, and is a premier global exchange of the latest advances in new and emerging scientific research in arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, vascular biology, peripheral vascular disease, vascular surgery and functional genomics.

“The results of this study advance our understanding of the interconnections among the brain, bone marrow and blood vessels, with activity of the brain emotional center closely linked to heart disease activity and inflammation of blood vessels which are spurred by inflammatory immune cells produced by the bone marrow,” said Dong Oh Kang, M.D., lead study author and clinical instructor in the cardiovascular center of Korea University Guro Hospital in Seoul, Korea.

The researchers obtained simultaneous PET and CT scans to create 3-D images of the brain, major arteries and bone marrow of 62 study participants. The study included 45 people (84% male, average age 60 years) who had a heart attack within the previous 45 days and 17 people with no heart attack history (76% male, average age 59.6 years), the control group. All participants completed widely accepted standard screening questionnaires for depression and perceived stress.

Researchers found:

  • Those who had a recent heart attack had significantly higher activity in the amygdala region of the brain, which is responsible for stress perception and emotional response.
  • The participants who had a recent heart attack also had increased inflammation in the aorta and carotid artery (neck), which supplies blood to the brain, and increased bone marrow activity, indicating active production of inflammatory cells.
  • In both groups, those who reported feeling more depressed or stressed on psychological questionnaires showed higher activity in the amygdala.
  • Brain emotional activity and inflammation can change over time. After six months, the 10 heart attack patients who underwent follow-up imaging had near-normal PET and CT scans.

“Amygdala activity has previously been reported to be stable over time, however, the changes seen in our study suggest the possibility that stress reduction techniques may lower brain emotional activity and potentially reduce inflammation in arteries and the production of inflammatory cells, thus, potentially modifying the course of heart disease. This could become an additional strategy to prevent a second heart attack,” Kang said.

Although the study found significant links between amygdala activity and artery inflammation, intervention studies are needed to investigate the possible benefits of modifying brain emotional activity on atherosclerosis. Kang also noted more research is needed to identify the most effective stress relief treatments.

Co-authors are Jae Seon Eo, M.D., Ph.D.; Eun Jim Park, M.D.; Hyeong Soo Nam, Ph.D.; Joon Woo Song, M.S.; Cheol Ung Choi, M.D., Ph.D.; Eung Ju Kim, M.D., Ph.D.; Seung-Woon Rha, M.D., Ph.D.; Hong Seog Seo, M.D., Ph.D.; Hongki Yoo, Ph.D.; and the principal investigator of this project is Jin Won Kim, M.D., Ph.D. Author disclosures are in the abstract, and no funding is reported.

The scientific presentation is at 12:05 p.m. CT, May 6, 2020; the virtual meeting link is available here.

Additional Resources:

Statements and conclusions of study authors published in American Heart Association scientific journals are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the Association’s policy or position. The Association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. The Association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific Association programs and events. The Association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing the science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations and health insurance providers are available at

About the American Heart Association

The American Heart Association is a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives. We are dedicated to ensuring equitable health in all communities. Through collaboration with numerous organizations, and powered by millions of volunteers, we fund innovative research, advocate for the public’s health and share lifesaving resources. The Dallas-based organization has been a leading source of health information for nearly a century. Connect with us on, Facebook, Twitter or by calling 1-800-AHA-USA1.


For Media Inquiries and AHA/ASA Expert Perspective: 214-706-1173

Karen Astle: 214-706-1392;

For Public Inquiries: 1-800-AHA-USA1 (242-8721) and